Laser dentistry provides a modern, innovative, and overall more comfortable approach to dental care. Lasers are being used in all possible procedures of modern day dentistry. Lasers provide the benefits of decreased bleeding, pain, swelling, minimal or no anesthesia required, bactericidal effect, decreased time for procedure and faster healing and recovery , decreased post-operative infection, and higher patient acceptance. Lasers can be used for decay removal, fillings, root canal sterilization, periodontal treatment(pocket sterilization), gum recontouring, teeth whitening, gum depigmentation, implantology, biopsy removal, and faster healing.
Laser light is amplified light emitted from a fibre, or hollow wave guide through a machine, due to stimulated emission of radiation.All lasers work by delivering energy in the form of light. When laser light falls on tissues, it either gets absorbed, reflected, transmitted or penetrated. The most desirable is absorption. When used for surgical and dental procedures,the laser acts as a cutting instrument or vaporizer of tissue that it comes in contact with. When used for curing or filling, the laser helps to strengthen the bond between the tooth and the material. When used for teeth whitening, it helps to speed up the whitening process by activation of the bleaching agent. All lasers are used with strict protocol of precaution. Laser safety in the form of protective eyewear, plume control and adequate warning are always followed to ensure safety of the patient, operator and the assistant
There are different wavelengths of dental lasers.
The Diode laser 810 nm which is a soft tissue laser which is used for cutting, sterilization and and soft tissue surgeries.
The Nd: YAG laser wavelength 2940nm- soft tissue surgeries and root canal sterilization.
The CO2 laser 10,600 nm is also a soft tissue laser used for soft tissue surgeries, and management of dentinal hypersensitivity. It provides excellent hemostasis or bleeding control during surgery.
The Er: YAG laser 1094 nm is an all tissue laser which acts on both the tooth surface as well as the soft tissues. It is a very promising modality of treatment to the patients. Due to its highest superficial impact and minimum depth of penetration into the tooth or surrounding gums and bone, it is painless, causes minimal thermal damage and promotes fastest healing. Most of the times no anesthesia is required. This laser can be used for almost all the procedures in dentistry. It has a mild effect of biostimulation.