A cyst is a pathological cavity, a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division, compared to the nearby tissues. It is a cluster of cells that have grouped together to form a sac. It may contain air, fluids or semi-solid materials. Once formed, it may resolve on its own or may have to be surgically treated by a process called as enucleation, which involves the removal of the entire cystic contents along with the lining. If any remnants are left behind, it can lead to recurrence of the cyst. Commonly occurring cysts are Dentigerous, Radicular ,Odontogenic cysts etc.
This is a procedure done to increase the height of the vestibule (the space between the lips and the gums). If it is too shallow, there can be several mucogingival problems, difficulty in positioning the tooth brush for oral hygiene maintenance, a pull or tension on the gum margins leading to pocket formation, gingival recession etc. Vestibuloplasty is also performed prior to fabrication of removable or fixed dentures so as to form a sound base for retention of the dentures, as the flanges or extensions of the dentures rest in the vestibule.
- Periosteal Fenestration
- Kazangian technique
- Laser assisted vestibuloplasty- can be performed with CO2, Diode, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG lasers.
MAXILLARY SINUS LIFT PROCEDURES
In direct sinus lift, the above mentioned procedure is performed first and then after 3-6 months dental implants are placed.This is an open surgery, which involves slightly more risk, and is done under antibiotic coverage.
In indirect sinus lift, the membrane is lifted through the osteotomy site for implant, simultaneously at the time of implant.This is a closed procedure and involves less risk.
A biopsy is a part of the tissue or complete excision of a lesion , swelling or growth in the oral cavity, which is sent for histopathological testing to the laboratory. This is generally performed in order to find out the exact nature of the lesion, especially in suspected cases of malignancy. It is also done when there is a differential opinion in the clinical presentation of a certain condition. Most common procedure is done with scalpel and blade. Nowadays lasers are being used for this purpose. There are other methods such as brush biopsy, use of dyes, exfoliative cytology, etc, to detect any changes in the initial stages of the lesions. Indications:
- Red and white patches on the gingiva, tongue, cheek, lips, palate etc.
- Fibrous growth or swelling of the soft tissue
- Bony swellings
- Dark patches of pigmentation in the oral cavity, etc.
Extraction of teeth
iii)Extraction of teeth for orthodontic reasons: Sometimes healthy teeth especially first or second premolars have to be extracted in cases of overcrowding, so as to make space and facilitate tooth movement.3. Extraction of impacted canines/overetained teeth: Teeth which are overretained, like deciduous teeth which do not exfoliate , or impacted(stuck in the jaw bones) canines have to be extracted, if they interfere with the normal occlusion .4. Atrauamtic extraction and socket preservation : Teeth which are diificult to retain, due to above mentioned reasons need to be extracted atraumatically using special instruments called periotomes, inorder to maintain the tooth socket intact.This is especially important when a dental implant is postulated as the line of treatment for replacement of the tooth after extraction. An adequate height, width and volume of bone of the ridge is required for a successful implant placement.