for removal of high upper labial frenum) fold between the upper lip and gums. Can cause recession of gums and pocket formation
relocating the lower frenum.
The increase of depth of the shallow vestibule to enable proper oral hygiene maintenance and before placement of dentures for proper retention.
4. Smile designing
correction of uneven gum margins, excessive gingival display, or uneven teeth alignment. Correction of gums as well as teeth followed by crown or veneer placement
5. Crown lengthening procedures
to increase the height of the tooth crown by cutting the gums or and bone surrounding the tooth. This enables the increased tooth height to receive a full crown. Generally more height is required for a full ceramic or porcelain fused to metal crowns.
6. Techniques to increase the width of attached gingiva
Apically displaced flap, free gingival graft, connective tissue graft harvested from the palate and sutured on the recipeint site.
7. Root coverage procedures